Company Structure – Business Ownership
There are many factors to consider when choosing a company structure. The choice you make will have an impact on several aspects of your organization, including taxes, liability, ownership succession, and more. It is important to consult with an accountant and attorney to help you select the form of ownership that is right for you. You can get further information on this topic at SBA.gov or Score.org.
According to Score.org, here are the five most critical items to consider when selecting-or re-selecting-your business structure.
- Protection of personal assets-Sole proprietors and partners have unlimited personal liability for business debt or law suits against their company. Creditors can attach homes, cars, savings or other personal assets. Incorporating or forming an LLC helps separate your personal identity from your business identity. Corporation shareholders or LLC members have only the money they put into the company to lose.
- Pass-Through Taxation-For sole proprietors and partners, company profits/losses pass directly through to their personal tax returns. For corporations, profits are taxed, then the profits that are distributed to shareholders as dividends are taxed again on the personal level. This “double taxation” can be avoided while still enjoying the benefits of personal asset protection by forming an LLC or by electing an S Corporation. S Corporations and LLCs are taxed just like partnerships.
- Tax Deductible Employee Benefits-Incorporating or forming an LLC usually provides tax-deductible benefits for you and your employees, an advantage that sole proprietors and partners do not typically enjoy. Even if you are the only shareholder or employee of your business, benefits such as health insurance, life insurance, travel and entertainment expenses may now be deductible. Best of all, corporations and LLCs usually provide an increased tax shelter for qualified pensions or retirement plans (e.g. 401Ks).
- Uninterrupted business-Sole proprietorships and partnerships may automatically end or become legally entangled when one owner dies or retires. Corporations and LLCs are enduring legal business structures. They may continue regardless of individual officers, managers or shareholders. Corporation ownership may be transferred, without substantially disrupting operations, through sale of stock.
- Access to Capital-Sole proprietorships and partnerships may find investors hard to attract because of personal liability. Investors are more likely to purchase shares in a corporation where there is a separation between personal and business assets.
Most small businesses start out as sole proprietorships. These firms are owned by one person, usually the individual who has the responsibilities for running the business. Sole proprietors own all the assets of the business and the profits generated by it. They also assume complete responsibility for any of its liabilities or debts. In the eyes of the law and the public, you are one in the same with the business.
Advantages of a Sole Proprietorship
- Easiest and least expensive form of ownership to organize.
- Sole proprietors are in complete control, and within the parameters of the law, may make decisions as they see fit.
- Sole proprietors receive all income generated by the business to keep or reinvest.
- Profits from the business flow directly to the owner’s personal tax return.
- The business is easy to dissolve, if desired.
Disadvantages of a Sole Proprietorship
- Sole proprietors have unlimited liability and are legally responsible for all debts against the business. Their business and personal assets are at risk.
- May be at a disadvantage in raising funds and are often limited to using funds from personal savings or consumer loans.
- May have a hard time attracting high-caliber employees or those that are motivated by the opportunity to own a part of the business.
- Some employee benefits such as owner’s medical insurance premiums are not directly deductible from business income.
In a Partnership, two or more people share ownership of a single business. Like proprietorships, the law does not distinguish between the business and its owners. The partners should have a legal agreement that sets forth how decisions will be made, profits will be shared, disputes will be resolved, how future partners will be admitted to the partnership, how partners can be bought out, and what steps will be taken to dissolve the partnership when needed.
Types of Partnerships that should be considered:
Partners divide responsibility for management and liability as well as the shares of profit or loss according to their internal agreement. Equal shares are assumed unless there is a written agreement that states differently.
Limited Partnership and Partnership with limited liability
Limited means that most of the partners have limited liability as well as limited input regarding management decisions, which generally encourages investors for short-term projects or for investing in capital assets. This form of ownership is not often used for operating retail or service businesses. Forming a limited partnership is more complex and formal than that of a general partnership.
Acts like a general partnership, but is clearly for a limited period of time or a single project. If the partners in a joint venture repeat the activity, they will be recognized as an ongoing partnership and will have to file as such as well as distribute accumulated partnership assets upon dissolution of the entity.
Advantages of a Partnership
- Partnerships are relatively easy to establish; however time should be invested in developing the partnership agreement.
- With more than one owner, the ability to raise funds may be increased.
- The profits from the business flow directly through to the partners’ personal tax returns.
- Prospective employees may be attracted to the business if given the incentive to become a partner.
- The business usually will benefit from partners who have complementary skills.
Disadvantages of a Partnership
- Partners are jointly and individually liable for the actions of the other partners.
- Profits must be shared with others.
- Since decisions are shared, disagreements can occur.
- Some employee benefits are not deductible from business income on tax returns.
- The partnership may have a limited life; it may end upon the withdrawal or death of a partner.
A corporation chartered by the state in which it is headquartered is considered by law to be a unique entity, separate and apart from those who own it. A corporation can be taxed, it can be sued, and it can enter into contractual agreements. The owners of a corporation are its shareholders. The shareholders elect a board of directors to oversee the major policies and decisions. The corporation has a life of its own and does not dissolve when ownership changes.
Advantages of a Corporation
- Shareholders have limited liability for the corporation’s debts or judgments against the corporations.
- Generally, shareholders can only be held accountable for their investment in stock of the company.
- Corporations can raise additional funds through the sale of stock.
- A corporation may deduct the cost of benefits it provides to officers and employees.
- Can elect S corporation status if certain requirements are met. This election enables company to be taxed similar to a partnership.
Disadvantages of a Corporation
- The process of incorporation requires more time and money than other forms of organization.
- Corporations are monitored by federal, state and some local agencies, and as a result may have more paperwork to comply with regulations.
- Incorporating may result in higher overall taxes. Dividends paid to shareholders are not deductible from business income; thus it can be taxed twice.
Subchapter S Corporations
A tax election only; this election enables the shareholder to treat the earnings and profits as distributions and have them pass through directly to their personal tax return. The catch here is that the shareholder, if working for the company, and if there is a profit, must pay him/herself wages, and must meet standards of “reasonable compensation”. This can vary by geographical region as well as occupation, but the basic rule is to pay yourself what you would have to pay someone to do your job, as long as there is enough profit.
Limited Liability Company (LLC)
The LLC is a relatively new type of hybrid business structure that is now permissible in most states. It is designed to provide the limited liability features of a corporation and the tax efficiencies and operational flexibility of a partnership. Formation is more complex and formal than that of a general partnership.
The owners are members, and the duration of the LLC is usually determined when the organization papers are filed. The time limit can be continued, if desired, by a vote of the members at the time of expiration. LLCs must not have more than two of the four characteristics that define corporations: Limited liability to the extent of assets, continuity of life, centralization of management, and free transferability of ownership interests.